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S
Saddle
What you sit on.
Saddlebag
A small bag that clips under the saddle to contain items that may be required on a ride, eg a multi-tool, tyre levers, spare inner tube.
Schrader valve
The thicker valve found on mountain bikes.
Seat Post
The post that the saddle attaches to, by way of the clamp on the seatpost fastening to the rails underneath the saddle. The seat post fits inside the seat tube and can be clamped in place by a variet of clamping methods.
Shifters
The levers attached to the handlebars which result on the gears changing.
Shimano
Japanese manufacturer of bicycle components. They have a number of different levels of road components that increase and quality and cost: sora, tiagra, 105, ultegra and dura ace.
Shoes
Shoes for bikes have rigid soles and fastening positions for cleats which attach to pedals. Mountain bike shoes have tread for grip. A recent trend for traditional leather cycling shoes has appeared.
Shorts
Cycling shorts can be baggy for off road, or lycra for road use. Lycra shorts can also be bibbed, which many cyclists find more comfortable.
Sit up and beg
A town bike. Often to be found with a basket on the front.
Sportive

A mass participation non-competitive cycling event. Usually times.

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